Title of the paper
line 1 (of Affiliation): dept. name of organization
line 2: name of organization, acronyms acceptable
line 3: City, Country
line 4: e-mail address if desired
Abstract: Length of abstract should be no more than 200 words.
Keywords: There is a maximum of 5 words
JEL Classification: Maximum of 3 JEL codes. See the following webpage to choose the appropriate classification codes: http://www.aeaweb.org/journal/jel_class_system.html
Papers should be submitted in English as doc or pdf file attachments. Each paper should be single-spaced with normal margins, on one side only of the paper, preferably of A4 size, with pages in numbered sequence. The font used for the main body should be12 ptTimes New Roman and for the footnotes10 ptTimes New Roman or the closest font available. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively and placed within the text. Please leave one line empty before and after every section.
In introduction clearly explain the nature of the problem, previous work, purpose, and contribution of the paper. Ensure that your paper has been fully proofread before submitting it for publishing.
Main Body of Paper
This is an example of references into the main text of the paper. In the case of summary or paraphrase, references should appear in brackets with the author’s name, followed by the year (Smith, 2001), or (Smith and White, 2001) or in the case of multiple authors (Smith et al., 2001); if the author is not known, give the title of the work and the year (Climate Change, 2009). If the same author has published more than two papers at the same year, then the papers are alphabetically separated, i.e. (Hall, 1990a; 1990b). In the case of quotation, add the page number, i.e. (Smith, 2001, p. 10). If the reference is within the body of the clause, give the author’s name and only the year of the paper in brackets, i.e. In Smith (2001) it is proposed …
Figures and Tables
Figures and Tables should be placed as close to their reference point in text as possible and they should de numbered consecutively as they appear in the text. All Figures and Tables must have titles and must be referenced from within the text. We remark that, all Tables and Figures should be included in one file, and integrated into the text at the appropriate points (not in an appendix), unless there are large and interrupt the flow of the text. In this case they should be appended and numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals with a descriptive caption. Appendix should be placed at the end of your paper, after the references.
Avoid color images as the journal is printed in black and white. Illustrations should be preferably included into the text as objects. They should be consecutively numbered in Arabic numerals with the heading always above the Table or Figure; they should not be typed in bold, font 12, single line spacing and the source beneath, also single line spacing.
Table 1: Table captions should always be positioned above the Tables. The final sentence of a Table caption should end without a period
Equations should be centered and numbered as the following example. It is preferable to use ‘equation editor’ or ‘MathType’ for the necessary equations, as it follows:
Be sure that the symbols in your equation have been defined before or immediately following the equation. Use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence: “Equation (1) is . . .”
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.
Clearly indicate advantages, limitations and possible applications.
References and Citations should follow the American Psychological Association, in alphabetical order at the end of the paper.
The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.)
Last name first, followed by author initials.
Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.
List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of “and.”
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.
Three to Seven Authors
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.
Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There’s more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.
More Than Seven Authors
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author’s name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.
Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.
Organization as Author
American Psychological Association. (2003).
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source’s title instead of an author’s name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster’s, 1993).
Two or More Works by the Same Author
Use the author’s name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).
Berndt, T. J. (1981).
Berndt, T. J. (1999).
When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.
Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends’ influence on students’ adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.
Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends’ influence on adolescents’ adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.
References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.
Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6, 629-654.
Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43.
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year
If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: “Berdnt (1981a) makes similar claims…”
Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416.
Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.
Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords
Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword (whatever title is applicable) as the chapter of the book.
Funk, R., & Kolln, M. (1998). Introduction. In E. W. Ludlow (Ed.), Understanding English grammar (pp. 1-2). Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Author, A. (Date Published). Article name. Name of website. [Retrieved] Date, [from] URL of Website
Iguchi, L. (2003, February 3). Japan warfare. History of Japan. Retrieved March 11, 2004, from http://book.edu/japan
Drums from Africa. (2002). Retrieved May 17, 2005, from http://www.abcd.com/africa/b2k
The editors and publishers of Journal of Economic and Social Studies (Jecoss) are not responsible for any cases of plagiarism or breaches of copyrights or other intellectual rights that may arise in any of the published texts. The authors of the texts are responsible for acquiring copyrights and other similar permissions
For more detailed guideline you can refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition, ISBN 1-55798-790-4, copies of which may be ordered from http://www.apa.org/books/4200061.html or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK